Jun 11, 2024

Brazil's Soybean Growing Season Will Start Early in 2024/25

Author: Michael Cordonnier/Soybean & Corn Advisor, Inc.

The 2024/25 soybean growing season in Brazil has been moved forward by 7-10 days in the two largest soybean producing states of Mato Grosso and Parana. Brazilian farmers had petitioned the Minister of Agriculture for the change to allow more time to plant a second crop after soybeans. The Minister partially agreed for the 2023/24 growing season and fully agreed for the upcoming 2024/25 growing season.

The new official start date for soybean planting is September 7th in Mato Grosso and September 1st in Parana. Earlier soybean planting means earlier soybean harvesting and an earlier start to soybean exports. Earlier soybean planting also means earlier safrinha corn planting which can result in a potentially higher safrinha corn yield.

Planting the soybeans early may or may not impact the soybean yield potential. The weather remains the determining factor for soybean yields. During the 2023/24 growing season, early planted soybeans suffered from hot and dry weather during October and November when the crop was setting and filling pods, but last year Brazil was under the influence of El Nino. In a few months when planting gets underway, Brazil will probably be under the influence of La Nina which usually results in beneficial weather in central Brazil.

If the weather cooperates for planting, it is possible that the 2024/25 soybean harvest could start by late November or early December in the state of Parana and by mid-December in the state of Mato Grosso.

This is potentially a positive development for Brazilian soybean farmers especially if they have irrigation capabilities. They can start planting early, allowing enough time for a second crop of corn. For farmers without irrigation, planting early could be riskier because they may be more tempted to plant after the first rain of the summer rainy season.

The problem is that it may be several weeks before the second rain occurs with very hot temperatures in between. Under that scenario, the soybeans may germinate and emerge only to die due to a lack of moisture. Farmers would then spend more money replanting the soybeans.